Chair of Marketing

Carrotmob and Anti-consumption. Same Motives, but Different Willingness to Make Sacrificies?

Journal of Macromarketing

The carrotmob—often defined as an inverse boycott—is a new, fast-diffusing form of pro-environmental consumption focusing on societal issues. Organized by activists, consumers swarm a predefined store and collectively buy its products. In return, the company engages in pro-environmental actions. This is the first study that empirically analyzes consumer attitudes toward carrotmob and participation intention. The article compares the drivers of carrotmob and anticonsumption (e.g., ecological consumer boycotts). Both forms of consumer activism are triggered by ecological concern. However, carrotmobbing differs because participants do not have to sacrifice their preferred consumption patterns. Study 1 (n = 437) demonstrates that willingness to make sacrifices moderates the impact of ecological concern on attitudes toward the carrotmob. Study 2 (n = 153) establishes external validity by modifying the carrotmob target. As expected, the carrotmob is an alternative consumption option attractive for consumers unwilling to make sacrifices in expressing their environmental concerns

Hutter, K.; Hoffmann, S. (2013). Carrotmob and Anti-consumption. Same Motives, but Different Willingness to Make Sacrificies? Journal of Macromarketing. (online first erschienen)

 

 

Consumer Acceptance of Regular and Reduced-sugar Yogurt Enriched with Different Types of Dietary Fiber

International Dairy Journal

Reduction of energy in foods by eliminating sugar, combined with an increase in fiber, frequently results in products with sensory characteristics that cannot be compared with standard counterparts. This study analyzed the response of young educated consumers (n = 704) on standard or reduced-sugar vanilla yogurt enriched with inulin or with inulin combined with a grain mixture, a milled mixture of flakes, or a combination of grains and milled flakes. On a nine-point hedonic scale, mean acceptance was 6.4 and 6.8 for yogurt with 112 g kg−1 and 160 g kg−1 sugar, respectively. It was concluded from acceptance data and from results obtained by just-about-right rating that adapting the flavoring concentration might be an appropriate tool to mask sugar reduction. In yogurt with visible fiber, it is mainly the size of incorporated fiber that should be considered in product optimization. In these products, sugar content significantly affects acceptance.

Hoppert, K.; Zahn, S.; Jänecke, L.; Mai, R.; Hoffmann, S.; Rohm, H. (2013). Consumer Acceptance of Regular and Reduced-sugar Yogurt Enriched with Different Types of Dietary Fiber, International Dairy Journal, 28 (1), 1-7.

 

 

Integrating Sensory Evaluation in Adaptive Conjoint Analysis to Elaborate the Conflicting Influence of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Attributes on Food Choice

Appetite

Sensory properties and packaging information are factors which considerably contribute to food choice. We present a new methodology in which sensory preference testing was integrated in adaptive conjoint analysis. By simultaneous variation of intrinsic and extrinsic attributes on identical levels, this procedure allows assessing the importance of attribute/level combinations on product selection. In a set-up with nine pair-wise comparisons and four subsequent calibration assessments, 101 young consumers evaluated vanilla yoghurt which was varied in fat content (four levels), sugar content (two levels) and flavour intensity (two levels); the same attribute/level combinations were also presented as extrinsic information. The results indicate that the evaluation of a particular attribute may largely diverge in intrinsic and in extrinsic processing. We noticed from our utility values that, for example, the acceptance of yoghurt increases with an increasing level of the actual fat content, whereas acceptance diminishes when a high fat content is labelled on the product. This article further implicates that neglecting these diverging relationships may lead to an over- or underestimation of the importance of an attribute for food choice.

Hoppert, K.; Mai, R.; Zahn, S.; Hoffmann, S.; Rohm, H. (2012). Integrating Sensory Evaluation in Adaptive Conjoint Analysis to Elaborate the Conflicting Influence of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Attributes on Food Choice, Appetite, 59 (3), 949-965.

 

 

Taste Lovers vs. Nutrition Fact Seekers: How Health Consciousness and Self-Efficacy Determine the Way Consumers Choose Food Products

Journal of Consumer BehaviourThis article identifies consumer segments that differ in the way they consider health-related and health-unrelated food properties when making food choices. The paper makes two assumptions: first, the level of health consciousness determines the quality of the attributes (health related versus health unrelated) these segments consider important; and second, the degree of nutrition-related self-efficacy subsequently defines the quantity of health-related attributes considered important. Two studies measure preferences for food attributes (Study 1: n = 54, 12 attributes, conjoint analysis; Study 2: n  = 162, 25 attributes, constant sum scales). In both studies, cluster analysis identifies two major segments (taste lovers and nutrition fact seekers) that are determined by consumers' level of health consciousness. Study 2 demonstrates that nutrition-related self-efficacy determines how many health-related attributes nutrition fact seekers consider important. Consequently, they can be split into ‘heavy’ and ‘soft’ subsegments. The study also identifies a segment that lacks a clear food choice strategy as a result of incompatible beliefs. The paper guides marketers and producers in developing healthy food products tailored to the needs of different target segments. Considering the enormous health expenditures, the studies' results are also beneficial to policy makers and governmental organizations to design social marketing campaigns. 

Mai, R.; Hoffmann, S. (2012). Taste Lovers vs. Nutrition Fact Seekers: How Health Consciousness and Self-Efficacy Determine the Way Consumers Choose Food Products, Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 11 (4), 316-328.

 

 

Carrotmob as a New Form of Ethical Consumption. The Nature of the Concept and Avenues for Future Research

Journal of Consumer Policy

A new form of ethical consumption has recently evolved: The carrotmob. As in a flashmob, consumers collectively swarm a specific store and purchase its goods in order to reward corporate socially responsible behaviour. The present paper introduces a conceptionalization of carrotmobs that takes into account the perspective of the three relevant parties: activists, companies, and consumers. First, the paper considers activists’ objectives in initiating such a social movement. It describes how they use guerrilla tactics to foster the participation of companies and consumers. Second, the paper considers the perspective of the target company, stressing the role of corporate social responsibility and describing how companies compete in an auction to become the carrotmob target. Third, the paper highlights the consumer perspective, discussing different views on consumer power and the motivation to participate in a carrotmob. The paper also points out directions for further empirical research for each of these three perspectives.

Hoffmann, S.; Hutter, K. (2012). Carrotmob as a New Form of Ethical Consumption. The Nature of the Concept and Avenues for Future Research, Journal of Consumer Policy, 35 (2), 215-236.

 

Ads for Mature Consumers: The Importance of Addressing the Changing Self-view between the Age Groups 50+ and 60+

Journal of Promotion Management

This paper investigates how to address mature consumers in advertisements in an appropriate, appreciating, and effective way. A 2 × 2–experiment with 125 consumers suggests that the more the advertisement model reflects the self-concept of the respondent on the dimensions of activity and modesty, the more positive is the attitude toward the ad. The study reveals differences between different age groups within the over-50s, which reflect a shift of values from modesty to activity. Although all mature consumers tend to prefer advertisement models that represent the concept of activity, this effect is stronger for the group 50+ than for the group 60+.

Hoffmann, S.; Liebermann, S.; Schwarz, U. (2012). Ads for Mature Consumers: The Importance of Addressing the Changing Self-view between the Age Groups 50+ and 60+, Journal of Promotion Management, 18 (1), 60-82.

 

Guerrilla Marketing. The Nature of the Concept and Propositions for Further Research, Asian Journal of Marketing

Asian_Journal_of_Marketing

The concept of guerrilla marketing subsumes a set of different innovative advertising instruments which aim at gaining a large effect with a small budget. Although these instruments are more and more often applied by practitioners, there is barely scientific discussion about the concept. Therefore, this study describes the evolution of the current understanding of guerrilla marketing as an attempt of gaining the attention of a large number of recipients at relatively low costs by means of a surprise effect and a diffusion effect. The study highlights how different guerrilla instruments (ambient, sensation, viral, buzz and ambush marketing), try to evoke these effects. Finally, since there is rare empirical evidence about the efficacy of guerrilla marketing, the paper outlines a conceptual framework and several propositions for further research from consumer behavior perspective and managerial perspective.

Hutter, K.; Hoffmann, S. (2011). Guerrilla Marketing. The Nature of the Concept and Propositions for Further Research, Asian Journal of Marketing, 5 (2), 39-54.

 

Four Positive Effects of a Salesperson’s Regional Dialect in Personal Selling

Journal of Service Research

This research analyzes how a salesperson’s regional dialect influences the efficacy of services selling. Four dialect effects are derived from theories of information processing, accent prestige theory, and social identity theory. In the first study, 92 industrial buyers, and in the second study, 126 customers evaluated salespersons after actual sales conversations. In contrast to conventional wisdom, both studies show that buyers do not generally devalue salespersons with a dialect. If speech is of high quality, a regional dialect improves satisfaction with the salesperson, rather than reducing it. Favorable sound qualities and prestigious stereotypical associations with the dialect also raise satisfaction with the salesperson. Moreover, the fit between salesperson and buyer dialects enhances satisfaction with the company and fosters purchase intention. In order to increase their persuasiveness, salespersons should be aware of the four dialect effects. Companies would also benefit from training salespersons to improve their speech quality, rather than concealing their dialect. If possible, salespersons should deliberately modify their way of speaking in all phases of the service-selling process.

Mai, R.; Hoffmann, S. (2011). Four Positive Effects of a Salesperson’s Regional Dialect in Personal Selling, Journal of Service Research, 14 (4), 423-437.

 (Journal cover © http://jsr.sagepub.com/)

 

Anti-Consumption as a Means of Saving Jobs

European Journal of Marketing

Purpose – The paper aims to explore how idiosyncratic motives drive participation in consumer boycotts and how the motives of different adopters (e.g. innovators, laggards) differ. The study seeks to describe how boycott motives are embedded in the fields of consumer resistance and anti-consumption. Design/methodology/approach – The paper applies a mixed-method approach of qualitative and quantitative methods. Internet postings of 790 boycott supporters are analyzed by means of a content analysis. The relevance of different motives is examined via frequency analysis. Contingency analysis is applied to explore segment-specific motives. Findings – Using the example of factory relocation, the study identifies several idiosyncratic motives that are contingent to the boycott cause. Additionally, it confirms that the motives of different adopters differ. Individuals who are personally affected or feel solidarity with those affected join the boycott relatively early whereas those who join later consider the pros and cons of the boycott more rationally.Research limitations/implications – Further research should apply quantitative research methods to ensure the stability of the findings. The external validity needs to be tested for different boycott types. Practical implications – Some consumers join boycotts because they feel solidarity with those affected by the actions of a company (resistance-boycotter), whereas others generally criticize the free-market economy and are generally prone to boycott any company (anti-consumption-boycotters). Companies need to ensure that both types of boycotters consider them socially responsible.Originality/value – This study provides evidence that boycott motives are case-contingent. Additionally, this is the first study to demonstrate how motives for joining a boycott vary in the course of time.

Hoffmann, S. (2011). Anti-Consumption as a Means of Saving Jobs, European Journal of Marketing, 45 (11/12), 1702-1714. (Highly Commended Award Winner at the Literati Network Awards for Excellence 2012)

 

Development and Validation of a Cross-nationally Stable Scale of Consumer Animosity

Journal of Marketing Theory & Practice

The paper suggests a measurement of consumer animosity that is applicable to respondents from different home countries and to different target countries of animosity. The multidimensional scale is based on the distinction of three universal drivers that mediate the influence of specific causes on general animosity: perceived threat, antithetical political attitudes, and negative personal experiences. By means of partial least squares, two studies validate the scale demonstrating (1) cross-national stability, (2) criterion validity (animosity influences product-specific country-of-origin images, boycotting, and purchase intention), and (3) construct validity (animosity is embedded in a nomological network of ethnocentrism, patriotism, and cosmopolitanism).

Hoffmann, S.; Mai, R.; Smirnova, M. (2011). Development and Validation of a Cross-nationally Stable Scale of Consumer Animosity, Journal of Marketing Theory & Practice, 19 (2), 235-252.

 

 (Journal cover © M.E. Sharpe, Inc, http://www.mesharpe.com)




 

The Ambivalent Effects of Website Complexity

International Journal of Internet Marketing and AdvertisingThe present study analyses how online users react to an increase of complexity of corporate websites. Two pretests and a main study are conducted. A first pretest with 80 subjects validates the distinction between a 'high-complexity' and a 'low-complexity' version of a website, which are then used as stimulus material in the main study. A second pretest with 116 respondents confirms a chain of website effects (ease of navigation, focused attention, enjoyment, attitude towards the website, etc.) that can be applied as criteria to evaluate the impact of website complexity. The main study was conducted as an online experiment with 109 participants. As expected, it is shown that the effects of complexity are ambivalent. On the one hand, website complexity fosters users' experience of flow and a positive attitude towards the website. On the other hand, users find it more difficult to navigate on a more complex website.

Hoffmann, S.; Schwarz, U.; Müller, S. (2011). The Ambivalent Effects of Website Complexity, International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising, 6 (4), 413-433.

 

Implicit Food Associations as Hurdles for Healthy Nutrition: The Necessity of Further Research

British_Journal_of_DiabetesHealthy nutrition is the driving force behind measures to address the obesity and diabetes epidemic. Therefore, the relevance of healthy nutrition to public health is steadily increasing. Although many consumers have positive attitudes towards healthy nutrition, their eating habits do not always match these attitudes. This paper suggests that individuals can overcome the discrepancy between attitude/intention and behaviour if they consider implicit associations with healthy or unhealthy nutrition. Our paper aims to develop a research strategy to analyse the impact of the interplay between explicit and implicit food associations on food consumption. The suggested process comprises the following steps: consumer segmentation, isolated analysis of different implicit drivers, holistic examination of interaction effects of different drivers and development of implications for policy makers and managers.

Mai, R.; Hoffmann, S.; Helmert, J. R.; Velichkovsky, B. M.; Zahn, S.; Jaros, D.; Schwarz, P. E. H.; Rohm, H. (2011). Implicit Food Associations as Hurdles for Healthy Nutrition: The Necessity of Further Research, British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, 11 (4), 182-186.

A Cognitive Model to Predict Domain-specific Consumer Innovativeness

Journal of Business ResearchMarketers who launch innovative products need to identify consumers who are willing to learn about, buy, and use these innovations. To optimize marketing campaigns, practitioners need to know the characteristics of this key segment in the diffusion process. Previous research, however, provides confounding results about antecedents of innovativeness because of two limitations: (1) previous studies have conceptualized innovativeness on different levels of abstraction (2) previous studies have not taken into account the influence of the product category. The present paper suggests a conceptual framework to overcome these shortcomings. Based on this framework, the paper suggests a theoretically founded cognitive model of domain-specific innovativeness for a product category with a utilitarian benefit. This model is empirically tested in the field of automotive interior. To this end, 521 German car drivers were surveyed. The results of structural equation modeling show that domain-specific innovativeness for utilitarian products is mainly influenced by specific need for cognition, special interest media usage and domain-specific opinion leadership.

Hoffmann, S.; Soyez, K. (2010). A Cognitive Model to Predict Domain-specific Consumer Innovativeness, Journal of Business Research, 63 (7), 778-785.

Consumer Boycotts Due to Factory Relocation, Journal of Business Research

Journal of Business Research

Multinational companies that decide to relocate subsidiaries often appear socially irresponsible. Consumer boycotts are a common response to this type of action, especially in the subsidiary's homeland; however, the factors that motivate individual boycott decisions remain largely unexplored. Consumers' degree of concern and level of trust in the management might influence this reaction. Furthermore, consumers may distinguish between the role of the multinational holding company and that of the subsidiary when making the decision to boycott. Seven hundred and twenty-four subjects were surveyed during an ongoing consumer boycott in Germany providing data that support the assumptions of the study. Multiple-group SEM shows that the intervening variables have a stronger impact on the boycott decision for those subjects who are customers of the company. Lastly, the article provides implications of these findings for managerial strategy.

Hoffmann, S.; Müller, S. (2009). Consumer Boycotts Due to Factory Relocation, Journal of Business Research, 62 (2), 239-247.

 

Pro-environmental Value Orientation across Cultures. Development of a German and Russian Scale

Social PsychologyDevelops and validates a German and Russian scale of proenvironmental value orientation. Proenvironmental value orientation is conceptualized as a 4-dimensional construct, entailing egocentric, ecocentric, and anthropocentric value orientations as well as environmental apathy. The first stage of the research is an expert test of indicator content validity. In a subsequent step, the authors provide evidence of internal consistency for a student sample (Study 1: 117 Russian students mean age 21.0 years and 106 German students mean age 22.1 years) and for the structural equivalence and criterion validity for a representative sample (Study 2: 204 Russian consumers mean age 56.2 years and 226 German consumers mean age 42.1 years). The structure of proenvironmental value orientation appears to be largely equivalent in both cultures, though the behavioral relevance of the dimensions differs. In the Russian sample, proenvironmental behavioral intention correlates with all of the 4 dimensions, whereas in Germany, anthropocentric value orientation does not relate to behavioral intention.

Soyez, K.; Hoffmann, S.; Wünschmann, S.; Gelbrich, K. (2009). Pro-environmental Value Orientation across Cultures. Development of a German and Russian Scale, Social Psychology, 40 (4), 222-233.

The Impact of Practical Relevance on Training Transfer. Evidence from a Service Quality Training Program for German Bank Clerks

International Journal of Training and DevelopmentThe management literature provides a variety of recommendations as to how workers customer orientation might be improved, including through training. Crucial factors in the process of transferring the contents of service quality training programs to practice, however, have not yet been sufficiently analysed. This study proposes and tests a model of transfer motivation and training transfer via structural equation modelling, validating Baldwin and Ford's framework and Kirkpatrick's levels of evaluation. Following the recommendation of Alliger etal., the present study analyses the relationship between Kirkpatrick's levels of evaluation, paying attention to the specificity of the measures at each level. The survey collects data from 213 German bank employees who attended a training program aimed at improving service quality. As hypothesized, the perceived practical relevance of the training was found to exert a strong influence on the reaction of the participants and had a substantial total effect on the motivation to transfer and on actual transfer. Subject to the limitations of the research methodology employed here, it is concluded that trainee satisfaction needs to be conceptually distinguished from perceived practical relevance and that the latter is the main driving force for transfer motivation and transfer.

Liebermann, S.; Hoffmann, S. (2008). The Impact of Practical Relevance on Training Transfer. Evidence from a Service Quality Training Program for German Bank Clerks, International Journal of Training and Development, 12 (2), 74-86.

Guerilla Marketing – eine nüchterne Betrachtung einer viel diskutierten Werbeform

der marktGuerrilla marketing describes an innovative strategy in communication, which is used more and more frequently by practitioners. However, there is no scientific discussion about the concept as to why both practitioner and researcher have got a diffuse understanding about the concept of guerrilla marketing. Regarding this lack of conceptionalization, the article provides a systematization of different perspectives and reviews how the concept has been changing over time. The instruments of guerrilla marketing (mosquito, ambush, viral, buzz, ambient and sensation marketing) are explained. Additionally, the benefits of guerrilla PR as a supporting activity are highlighted. Furthermore, the paper suggests an algorithm that can be used to estimate the guerrilla effect. Based on this formula a group of marketing experts compares twelve guerrilla activities. A sensitivity analysis shows the range of possible guerrilla effects for different instruments. The paper provides practical hints for developing guerrilla campaigns and directions for future research.

Hutter, K.; Hoffmann, S. (2011). Guerilla Marketing – eine nüchterne Betrachtung einer viel diskutierten Werbeform, der markt – International Journal of Marketing, 50 (2), 121-135.

Die Wirkung von Akzent und Dialekt in der internen und externen Kommunikation: Stand der betriebswirtschaftlich orientierten Forschung und Forschungsdirektiven

Journal für BetriebswirtschaftslehreWith growing interest, the importance of speech characteristics is being discussed in business literature. Particularly speech varieties such as a regional dialect or a foreign accent of a speaker affect the success of business interaction significantly. The present paper systematically depicts these effects by conducting a literature review. The underlying processes of accent and dialect effects are discussed and empirical findings of business research are presented. Since this topic is highly inter-disciplinary, findings of peripheral research disciplines such as linguistic science and social psychology are integrated. Having given a comprehensive state-of-art review, the present paper develops a theoretical framework, which integrates previous partial theories and the fragmentary empirical findings. Based on this framework, the paper suggests directives for future research.

Mai, R.; Hoffmann, S. (2010). Die Wirkung von Akzent und Dialekt in der internen und externen Kommunikation: Stand der betriebswirtschaftlich orientierten Forschung und Forschungsdirektiven, Journal für Betriebswirtschaft, 60 (4), 241-268.

Internationale Markennamen: Die Standardisierungs-/Differenzierungsentscheidung anhand linguistischer Kriterien

der markt

When entering new country markets, companies have to decide whether to standardize their brand names globally or to adapt them to each target market. The present paper claims that companies have to take into account several criteria to answer the standardization/adaption question. In particular, the paper focuses on linguistic criteria as they have not yet been intensively addressed in marketing literature. Phonetic (pronounceableness and sound) as well as semantic (positive associations and memorability) characteristics of the brand name are described. The paper illustrates the success drivers of global brand names. Promisingword structures are recommended. Moreover, the paper discusses, whether or not descriptive, associative, artificial, and phonetic brand names are applicable on a global scale. Afterwards, the paper exemplifies methods to design nationally adjusted brand names. The paper discusses the creation of new brand names as well as different strategies to translate the origin brand name, such as the phonetic translation (transliteration) and the semantic (literal) translation. Finally, the paper illustrates hybrid strategies: the phonetic-semantic translation as well as the dual translation. The latter are particularly efficient if a company needs to transfer a brand name from an alphabetical language to a language that bases on ideographs.

Müller, S.; Hoffmann, S. (2010). Internationale Markennamen: Die Standardisierungs-/Differenzierungsentscheidung anhand linguistischer Kriterien, der markt – International Journal of Marketing, 49 (1), 43-51.

 

Wer lacht über humorvolle Werbung? - Der Einfluss von Kultur und Geschlecht

Transfer

Die vorliegende Studie untersucht am Beispiel von Deutschland und Russland, inwieweit es von Geschlecht und kultureller Prägung der Umworbenen abhängt, ob diese an widersprüchlichem Humor Gefallen finden Ein Online- Experiment zeigt, dass humorvolle Werbeanzeigen unabhängig vom Geschlecht in beiden Märkten besser wirken als humorlose Werbung, wobei dieser Effekt in Deutschland stärker ist als in Russland. Die Untersuchung impliziert, dass Marketingexperten den deutschen und den russischen Markt mit widersprüchlich-humorvollen Anzeigen standardisiert bearbeiten können Humorlose Anzeigen werden in Deutschland hingegen deutlich schlechter beurteilt als in Russland.

Schwarz, U.; Hoffmann, S. (2009). Wer lacht über humorvolle Werbung? - Der Einfluss von Kultur und Geschlecht, transfer - Werbeforschung & Praxis, 55 (2), 19-30.

 

Intention postgradualer Bindung: Warum Studenten der Wirtschaftswissenschaften nach dem Examen dem Alumniverein beitreten wollen

Schmalenbachs Zeitschrift für betriebswirtschaftliche ForschungUnlike US-American graduates, German graduates have to decide whether or not they become a member of an alumni association. In order to explain why German university students education join an alumni club, the authors identify several antecedents of the intention of post gradual loyalty. It is suggested that satisfaction with the service quality of the university, academic integration, benefit of the offers provided by the graduate network as well as emotional commitment and commitment with the subject foster the intention of post gradual loyalty. Based on a sample of 136 students of business administration the postulated model is tested using PLS. It is cross-validated on a sample of 110 students of economics. Suggestions for the work of alumni associations are derived from the findings.

Hoffmann, S.; Müller, S. (2008). Intention postgradualer Bindung: Warum Studenten der Wirtschaftswissenschaften nach dem Examen dem Alumniverein beitreten wollen, Schmalenbachs Zeitschrift für betriebswirtschaftliche Forschung, 60 (3), 570-600.

Externes Wissensmanagement zur Steigerung der Effizienz von Entsendungen von KMU

Zeitschrift für BetriebswirtschaftRestricted human resources as well as a lack of international experience inhibit the internationalization of SME. This article discusses theoretically and empirically how interfirm knowledge management can support SME in developing cross-cultural competencies and reducing psychic distance to foreign markets. Based on the responses of 396 German SME, we investigate problems occurred during foreign deployments, information needed to prepare expatriates, and preferred sources of information. The analysis takes into account different market entry strategies as well as other contingency variables of the internationalization. Practical implications are derived and illustrated by the development of the internet portal iXpatriate.

Hoffmann, S.; Müller, S. (2007). Externes Wissensmanagement zur Steigerung der Effizienz von Entsendungen von KMU, Zeitschrift für Betriebswirtschaft, 76 (6), 99-123.

Psychologische Grundlagen des Gesundheitsmarketing. Ein Überblick über sozial-kognitive Modelle

Der Betriebswirt

Die gesundheitspsychologische Literatur umfasst mehrere einschlägige sozial-kognitive Modelle, die erklären, warum sich Menschen gesundheitsfördernd oder -schädigend verhalten. Obwohl diese Modelle helfen können, die Instrumente des Gesundheitsmarketing effizienter zu gestalten, werden sie in der Marketingforschung und -praxis noch nicht hinreichend beachtet. Der vorliegende Artikelmöchte dazu beitragen, diese Lücke zu schließen. Er bietet deshalb einen Überblick über diewichtigsten linearen und diskontinuierlichen Modelle der Gesundheitspsychologie. Es werden Gemeinsamkeiten der Modelle herausgearbeitet, um daraus zentrale Ansatzpunkte für das Gesundheitsmarketing abzuleiten. Es wird deutlich, wie Unternehmen auf Basis dieser Erkenntnisse bspw. ihre Produkt- und Kommunikationspolitik verbessern können.

 Hoffmann, S. (2012). Psychologische Grundlagen des Gesundheitsmarketing. Ein Überblick über sozial-kognitive Modelle, der Betriebswirt, 51 (3).

 

Identifikation innovativer Konsumenten. Stand der Forschung zu den Korrelaten der Konsumenteninnovativität

Jahrbuch der Absatz- und VerbrauchsforschungUm neue Produkte erfolgreich am Markt positionieren zu können, müssen Unternehmen wissen, welche Konsumenten dazu neigen, Innovationen früher als andere zukaufen und zu nutzen. Aus diesem Grund beschäftigen sich Marketingwissenschaftler seit langem mit dem Konstrukt der Konsumenteninnovativität und diskutieren unterschiedliche Konzeptionalisierungen. Der vorliegende Beitrag ermittelt anhand eines Literaturüberblicks, welche allgemeinen und produktspezifischen Einflussgrößen die empirische Forschung auf den Abstraktionsebenen der immanenten und bereichsspezifischen Innovativität belegen konnte. Damit zeigt der Beitrag, anhand welcher Merkmale sich innovative Konsumentenidentifizieren lassen, um dieses Erfolg versprechende Kundensegment gezielt ansprechen zu können.

Soyez, K.; Hoffmann, S. (2008). Identifikation innovativer Konsumenten. Stand der Forschung zu den Korrelaten der Konsumenteninnovativität, Jahrbuch der Absatz- und Verbrauchsforschung, 54 (3), 247-265.

State of the Art der Forschung zum Interkulturellen Konsumentenverhalten. Eine Analyse der Literatur von 2005 bis 2010

Journal BetriebswirtschaftslehreUnternehmen, die mehrere Ländermärkte bearbeiten, stehen vor der Herausforderung, ihren Marketing-Mix an Kunden mit unterschiedlichen Wertvorstellungen anzupassen. Die interkulturelle Konsumentenforschung soll diesen Anpassungsprozess unterstützen und sucht deshalb nach Erklärungsansätzen zur Kultur(un)gebundenheit des Kaufverhaltens. Dieser Beitrag zielt darauf ab, anhand einer aktuellen Literaturanalyse zu klären, wie sich die Forschungsdisziplin in den Jahren von 2005 bis 2010 weiterentwickelt hat. 92 einschlägige Studien werden hinsichtlich ihres Forschungsansatzes, der Auswahl der Kultureinheiten, der Operationalisierung von Kultur und der betrachteten Form des Konsumentenverhaltens systematisch analysiert. Es zeigt sich, dass Quantität und Breite der interkulturellen Konsumentenforschung zunahmen und dass methodische Probleme teils überwunden werden konnten. Aufbauend auf der Literaturanalyse verdichtet dieser Beitrag die zentralen Erkenntnisse der Forschung im Betrachtungszeitraum und leitet Direktiven für die zukünftige Forschung ab.

Hoffmann, S.; Fischer, S.; Schwarz, U.; Mai, R. (2013). State of the Art der Forschung zum Interkulturellen Konsumentenverhalten. Eine Analyse der Literatur von 2005 bis 2010, Journal für Betriebswirtschaft - Management Review Quarterly, 63 (1), 45-86.

Regionaler Dialekt in kommerziellen Interaktionen: Vorteil oder Nachteil für Mitarbeiter mit direktem Kundenkontakt?

der marktIm Geschäftsalltag sind regionale Dialekte zumeist negativ konnotiert und werden, vielmehr implizit denn explizit, als nachteilig in der Kunden-Mitarbeiter-Interaktion angesehen. Derzeit allerdings liegen kaum Erkenntnisse darüber vor, welche Wirkung ein Dialekt eines Mitarbeiters mit direktem Kundenkontakt entfaltet. Dieser Beitrag prüft empirisch die verschiedenen Prozesse, die ein Dialekt hervorrufen kann. Dafür wurden 48 Kunden nach der Interaktion mit einem Mediaberater befragt. Es zeigt sich, dass der Dialekt per se kein Nachteil in der betriebswirtschaftlichen Kommunikation ist. Eine Strukturanalyse legt vielmehr nahe, dass verschiedene direkte und indirekte Dialekteffekte die Kundenzufriedenheit bestimmen: Die Kunden beurteilen den Mitarbeiter umso positiver, je wohlklingender der Dialekt ist und je positiver mit dem Dialekt verknüpfte stereotypische Assoziationen sind. Die Einschätzung des Unternehmensrepräsentanten schlägt sich wiederum in der Zufriedenheit mit dem Unternehmen nieder. Einen direkten Einfluss auf die Kundenzufriedenheit übt hingegen die Ähnlichkeit des Dialekts von Käufer und seinem Gegenüber aus. So kann gezeigt werden, dass sprachliche Gemeinsamkeiten die Zufriedenheit mit dem Unternehmen aufgrund ethnozentristischer Urteilsverzerrungen unmittelbar beeinflussen. Aufbauend auf den Erkenntnissen dieser Studie entwickelt der Beitrag Empfehlungen für die Praxis (bspw. Ausgestaltung von Sprachtrainings) und leitet Implikationen für die zukünftige Forschung ab.

Mai, R.; Hintermeier, J. (2011). Regionaler Dialekt in kommerziellen Interaktionen: Vorteil oder Nachteil für Mitarbeiter mit direktem Kundenkontakt?, in: der markt - International Journal of Marketing, 50 (4), 219-232.

 

Der Herkunftslandeffekt: Eine kritische Würdigung des State of the Art

Journal BetriebswirtschaftslehreDer Einfluss des Produktherkunftslandes auf das Konsumentenurteil, der sog. Herkunftslandeffekt (Country of Origin-Effekt), hat in Forschung und Praxis starke Beachtung erfahren. Trotz unzähliger Studien ist der Erkenntnisstand jedoch noch immer unbefriedigend. Dies liegt u. a. daran, dass der Herkunftslandeffekt in realitätsfernen Untersuchungen mit erheblichen methodischen Schwächen überschätzt wurde. Für die Marketing-Praxis bedeutsamere Formen von Herkunftshinweisen wurden in der verhaltenswissenschaftlich orientierten Forschung ebenso weitestgehend vernachlässigt wie rechtliche Bestimmungen, die der Umsetzung enge Grenzen setzen. Um ein grundlegendes Verständnis des Forschungsfeldes zu entwickeln, skizziert vorliegende Studie zunächst den derzeitigen Erkenntnisstand und zeigt Einflussfaktoren des Effektes systematisch auf. Sodann diskutiert der Beitrag zentrale Problembereiche und neue Herausforderungen des Gebietes. Um dem zukünftig zu begegnen und zu neuen Erkenntnissen beizutragen, werden zahlreiche Direktiven für die Forschung erarbeitet.

Mai, R. (2011). Der Herkunftslandeffekt: Eine kritische Würdigung des State of the Art, in: Journal für Betriebswirtschaft, 61 (2), 91-121.

Die asymmetrische Wirkung eines Akzents in der Werbung

MarketingBeeinflusst der Akzent eines Werbedarstellers die Produktbeurteilung sowie die Kaufentscheidung von Konsumenten signifikant? Der vorliegende Beitrag postuliert, dass ein fremdländischer Akzent die Assoziationen zum Herkunftsland eines Produkts intensiviert. Aus der Theorie der sozialen Identität wird die Hypothese abgeleitet, dass dieser Effekt vor allem bei negativen Assoziationen auftritt. Eine experimentelle Untersuchung mit 245 Probanden zeigt zunächst, dass das Urteil der Rezipienten über das umworbene Produkt nicht davon abhängt, ob ein Werbedarsteller mit oder ohne Akzent spricht. Im zweiten, dem quasi-experimentellen Teil der Studie kann jedoch nachgewiesen werden, dass die wahrgenommene Akzentstärke die maßgebliche Variable ist. Ein stark wahrgenommener Akzent intensiviert ein negatives produktspezifisches Landesimage und führt in der Folge zu einer Abwertung des umworbenen Produkts. Entsprechend der These einer asymmetrischen Verstärkung eignet sich ein fremdländischer Akzent dagegen nicht, ein positives produktspezifisches Landesimage zu verstärken.

Mai, R.; Hoffmann, S.; Müller, S. (2009). Die asymmetrische Wirkung eines Akzents in der Werbung, Marketing – Zeitschrift für Forschung & Praxis, 31(4), 255-265.

(Journal cover © http://www.marketing.beck.de)

Do Culture-Dependent Response Styles Distort Substantial Relationships?

IBRSurvey data are frequently distorted by answering tendencies, such as acquiescence,disacquiescence, midpoint and extreme response style. Cross-cultural research projectsmay be particularly vulnerable to misinterpretations. This paper provides empiricalinsights into the manner and degree to which culture systematically distorts findings fromsurvey data. The study is based on data from 1027 respondents from Austria, France,Germany, India, Mexico, Russia, Spain, and the United States. The investigation firstlydemonstrates that Hofstede’s and project GLOBE’s cultural dimensions explain variationsin response styles across different countries. Secondly, and most importantly, the paperexplores the impact of culture-dependent response styles on findings. Remarkably, theextent of distortion in correlation analysis and mean comparisons is less severe thanexpected. Nonetheless, cross-cultural researchers would be well advised to control at leastfor (dis-)acquiescence before analyzing and interpreting their data.

Hoffmann, S.; Mai, R.; Cristescu, A. (2013). Do Culture-Dependent Response Styles Distort Substantial Relationships?, International Business Review.

The Effectiveness of Humor in Cross-Cultural Advertising

Journal of EuromarketingTo date, the effectiveness of humor has not been analyzed appropriately in a cross-cultural setting. Therefore, the paper examines whether the impact of humor type on perceived level of humor, attitude toward the ad, and attitude toward the brand depends on culture. An experiment with fictive print ads is conducted. 257 Russian and German respondents are surveyed. The results show that culture (in-group collectivism, performance orientation) moderates the relation between humor type (aggressive, nonsense) and perceived level of humor while the influence of perceived level of humor on attitudes toward the ad and the brand is culturally stable.

Müller, S.; Hoffmann, S.; Schwarz, U.; Gelbrich, K. (2012). The Effectiveness of Humor in Cross-Cultural Advertising, Journal of Euromarketing, 20 (1/2).

 (Journal cover © http://journals.sfu.ca/je/index.php/euromarketing/index )

Unter welchen Bedingungen ist humorvolle Werbung erfolgreich? Ein Überblick zu den Moderatoren der Humorwirkung

WiStDer Einsatz von Humor als Stilmittel der Werbung erfreut sich bei Marketing-Verantwortlichen großer Beliebtheit. Auch die Forschung hat in den vergangenen vierzig Jahren analysiert, ob und wie humorvolle Werbung wirkt. Der vorliegende Beitrag widmet sich den untersuchten Moderatoren der Humorwirkung und diskutiert, unter welchen Bedingungen Humor in der Werbung erfolgreich ist.

Schwarz, U.; Hoffmann, S. (2012). Unter welchen Bedingungen ist humorvolle Werbung erfolgreich? Ein Überblick zu den Moderatoren der Humorwirkung, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliches Studium, 41 (7), 344-349.

(Journal cover © http://www.marketing.beck.de)

Adaptation of Advertisement Campaigns to Foreign Markets. A Content Analysis

EMThe present paper analyses examines whether multinational companies adapt their global advertising campaigns to the country of destination or standardise their communication strategy. The contingency hypothesis is widely accepted as an appropriate solution for the standardisation/adaptation debate. However, little research has been conducted to reveal which contingency variables are actually considered by multinational companies to define the appropriate degree of adaptation. We assume that the decision whether to convince by information or emotions depends upon the economic condition of the country of destination. The frequency of specific design elements is supposed to be influenced by the cultural profile of the target country. A content analysis of German and Russian print advertisements supports our assumptions to a large extent. Nevertheless, we found that German car manufacturers address the high Power Distance Index (PDI) of the Russian Federation insufficiently.

Hoffmann, S.; Wittig, K. (2007). Adaptation of Advertisement Campaigns to Foreign Markets. A Content Analysis, Journal of European Economy, 6 (2), 128-150.